家畜ケア論文Scientific Articles


<産業動物:家畜ケア>Livestock care

Anti-lipopolysaccharide antibody administration mitigates ruminal lipopolysaccharide release and depression of ruminal pH during subacute ruminal acidosis challenge in Holstein bull cattle

J. Vet. Med. Sci. 83(6): 905–910, 2021 doi: 10.1292/jvms.21-0037

Hitoshi MIZUGUCHI, et al.: DKK-Toa Yamagata Co.,
The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science |  Vol. 83, No. 6 June 2021 (jsvetsci.jp)
The effects of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody on rumen fermentation and LPS activity were investigated during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge. Eleven Holstein cattle (164 ± 14 kg) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cattle were fed a roughage diet on days −11 to −1 (pre-challenge) and day 2 (post-challenge), and a high-grain diet on days 0 and 1 (SARA challenge). For 14 days, 0-, 2-, or 4-g of anti-LPS antibody was administered once daily through a rumen fistula. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on days −1, 0, 1, and 2. Significantly lower ruminal LPS activity on day 1 was observed in the 2- and 4-g groups than those in the 0-g group. In addition, significantly higher 1-hr mean ruminal pH on SARA challenge period (days 0 and 1) was identified in the 4-g group than in the 0-g group. However, rumen fermentation measurements (total volatile fatty acid [VFA], VFA components, NH3-N and lactic acid) and peripheral blood metabolites (glucose, free fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) were not different among the groups during the experimental periods. Therefore, anti-LPS antibody administration mitigates LPS release and pH depression without the depression of rumen fermentation and peripheral blood metabolites during SARA challenge in Holstein cattle.

Development of Genotype-Specific Anti-Bovine Rotavirus A Immunoglobulin Yolk Based on a Current Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Bovine Rotaviruses A Collected in Japan during 2017–2020.


Viruses, Dec 3; 12 (12), 1386- (2020) doi: 10.3390/v12121386.

Koki Odagiri, et al.


Bovine rotavirus A (RVA), a major causative pathogen of diarrhea in dairy and Japanese beef calves, has led to severe economic losses in numerous countries. A dual genotyping system based on genomic segments encoding VP7 (G genotype) and VP4 (P genotype), comprising the outer layer of the virion, has been used to understand the epidemiological dynamics of RVAs at the national and global levels. This study aimed to investigate occurrence frequency of G and P genotypes for multiple bovine RVAs from calf diarrheic samples collected in Japan from 2017 to 2020. After we produced anti-bovine RVA immunoglobulin yolks (IgYs) from hens immunized with the two RVAs with different genotypes (G6P[5] and G10P[11]) selected on the basis of the current epidemiological survey, we investigated cross-reactivity against bovine RVAs with different G and P combinations owing to establish a useful strategy to protect calves from RVA infections using the two IgYs. Consequently, the two produced anti-bovine IgYs showed strong cross-reactivity against bovine RVAs with the same G and/or P genotypes in neutralization assay, respectively. Therefore, our data suggest the possibility of a passive immunization to protect calves from a bovine RVA infections epidemic in Japan via oral administration of the two IgYs into calves. The findings presented herein will provide important information that IgY is one of the effective tools to prevent infections of various pathogens.




Prevalence Cryptosporidium and its antibody in cattle fed in Okayama Prefecture.

家畜診療 66 10 201910月:J Livestock Med, 66, 621-625 (2019)

水戸康明ら:NOSAI岡山 西部基幹家畜診療所


岡山県内の飼養牛におけるクリプトスポリジウム(Cr)の浸澗状況,および抗体保有状況を調査した。下痢症状を呈した2202日齢の子牛の糞便117検体を検査したところ,Crオーシストの抗原陽性率(抗原陽性検体数/試験供試検体数)は,29.1 % (34/117)であった。また,抗Cr抗体価(血清中ELISA OD値)は,乳用種母牛108検体の62.0%,黒毛和種母牛17検体の94.1%が0.3以下であった。母牛の抗Cr抗体価は全体的に低いことから,初乳を介して子牛へ賦与されるCrに対する移行抗体も少ないと考えられた。

The prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Cr) and that of its antibody were investigated in cattle fed in Okayama Prefecture. Testing of 117 feces samples taken from calves with diarrhea aged from 2 to 202 days revealed that the positive rate of Cr oocyst antigen (the ratio of the number of antigen-positive sample to the number of total test sample) was 29.1% (34/117). The Cr antibody titer {enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay optical density (ELISA OD) value in serum} was in < 0.3 in 62.0% and 94.1% of 108 samples from mother dairy cow and 17 samples from mother Japanese Black cows, respectively. The low Cr antibody titer in mother cows suggested that level of the maternal antibody against Cr transmitted to calves through colostrum was also low.                                                                                                                      




Effect of an egg yolk immunoglobuline (IgY) product on oocyst shedding and blood and fecal IgY concentrations in cryptosporidium-infected calves

産業動物臨床医誌 10(2): 68-72, 2019

野嵜 敢ら:帯広畜産大学獣医学研究部門 臨床獣医学分野


クリプトスポリジウム感染症は生後 1 カ月以内の子牛に水様性下痢を引き起こす。クリプトスポリジウム症に有効な治療薬は存在しないが,子牛の下痢症に対する卵黄抗体(IgY)製剤が市 販されており,これに抗クリプトスポリジウムIgYが含まれる。そこで本研究では,クリプトスポリジウム症に対する本製剤の効果を血清中および糞便中IgY動態から検討した。1 酪農場の子牛12頭を対照群(通常哺乳),初乳投与群(初乳に製剤60gを混合して投与),2 週投与群(初乳に製剤60g,生後2週間まで生乳に製剤10g/日を混合して投与)の3群に分けて供試牛とした。試験期間は生後21日目までとし,血液および糞便を採取した。すべての供試牛がCryptosporidium parvumに感染し,水様性下痢を発症した。糞便1gあたりの平均オーシスト数は2週投与群が,初乳投与群および対照群より有意に少なかった(p<0.05)。また,血清および糞便中の総 IgY 濃度および抗クリプトスポリジウムIgY濃度は,初乳投与群および2週投与群ともに高値を示し,糞便中の総IgY 濃度は生後514日目までは2週投与群で初乳投与群よりも有意に高かった(p<0.05)。糞便中の抗クリプトスポリジウムIgY 濃度は生後5および7日目に 2 週投与群で初乳投与群よりも有意に高かった(p<0.05)。本製剤の2週間の連続的な経口投与はクリプトスポリジウム感染子牛のオーシスト排出量を減少させたことから,抗クリプトスポリジウムIgYはクリプトスポリジウム症予防に有用である可能性が示唆された。




Passive immunization by specific chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin antibodies against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea.

豚病会報 No.73 2019Proc Jpn Pig Vet Soc No.73. 2019




豚流行性下痢(Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea; PED)は、コロナウイルス科アルファコロナウイルス属のPEDウイルス(PEDV)を病原体とする急性伝染病である。PED1970年代前半に英国で伝染性胃腸炎 Transmissible gastroenteritis; TGE)とは異なるコロナウイルス様粒子が関与する豚の新しい下痢症として 報告されて、1978年にはベルギーで初めて PEDVCV777株)が分離された。その後、ドイツ、フランスなどの欧州各地で散発発生を繰り返し、1980年代にはアジアにも拡大した。1990年代には我が国で流行し、約4万頭の子豚が死亡するに至った。2013年に再び大流行し、1990年代の発生件数をはるかに上回る深刻な被害をもたらした。その後、PED防疫対策及び飼養衛生管理基準の見直しと徹底化により発生件数が著しく減少したが、5年経過した現在もまだ発生が継続している。当社は、鶏卵黄免疫グロブリン(Immunoglobulin Yolk; IgY)抗体を用いた受動免疫賦与により、幼若家畜の腸管感染症に対する予防対策の研究と実用化に取り組んでいる。本稿では、抗PEDV IgY抗体の受動免疫賦与による発症軽減効果を紹介し、PED防疫対策を補佐するためのIgY抗体活用法を提案する。

 Cryptosporidiosis causes watery diarrhea in calves younger than one month of age. There is no treatment for cryptosporidiosis, but an egg yolk immunoglobulinIgYproduct, which contains the anti-cryptosporidium IgY, has been developed to prevent the calf diarrhea. In this study, the effect of this product on cryptosporidiosis was ex mined. Twelve calves were divided into three groups: an untreated control group; a colostrum groupreceived 60g of IgY mixed in the colostrum. And a 2-week treatment groupreceived 60g of IgY in the colostrum and then 10 g/day of IgY mixed in milk for two weeks. During the 21-day study period, all calves were naturally infected with Cryptosporidium parvum and developed watery diarrhea. The mean number of oocysts per gram of feces was significantly lower in the 2-week treatment group than in the colostrum and control groupsp<0.05. The total IgY and anti-cryptosporidium IgY concentrations in the serum and feces increased in both the colostrum and 2-week treatment groups, and the total fecal IgY concentration was significantly higher in the 2-week treatment group than in the colostrum group from day 5 to day 14p<0.05. The fecal anti-cryptosporidium IgY concentration was significantly higher in the 2-week treatment group on day 5 and 7 than in the colostrum groupp<0.05. Thus, oral administration of IgY for two weeks reduced oocyst shedding in cryptosporidium-infected calves, indicating that anti-cryptosporidium IgY may be useful for the prevention of cryptosporidiosis.



哺乳子牛における鶏卵抗体(IgY)を用いた下痢症予防対策 ()

Diarrhea prevention measures using chicken egg antibody (IgY) in suckling calves

MPアグロ ジャーナル(25):2016, 4: 22-25

水戸康明ら:岡山県農業共済組合 家畜課




哺乳子牛における鶏卵黄抗体(IgY)を用いた下痢症予防対策 ()

Diarrhea prevention measures using chicken egg yellow antibody (IgY) in suckling calves

臨床獣医 2016, 34(4): 28-32 (Journal of clinical veterinary medicine

水戸泰明ら:岡山県農業共済組合 家畜課

子牛の下痢症は,農場で頻緊に遭遇する病気のひとつである。下痢の原因は大きく感染性と非感染性に分けられているが,複数の因子が関与して発症していることが多い。感染性の下痢症は,病原体によって発症時期に迎いが見られるが多くの病原体(ロタウイルス,コロナウイルス,K99線毛抗原陽性大腸菌, クリプトスポリジウムなど)は生後30日齢以内に発症することが多い。これは子牛の免疫応答能や消化機能が未熟なためと考えられる。特に生後8日齢未満の新生子牛は腎臓機能も未熟であることから,重度の脱水に陥りやすく,煎篤になれば死亡にいたる。そのため,子牛の下痢症において出生直後の子牛における下痢予防対策は重要となる。



海外養豚情報: 子豚の免疫系を支援する ()

Overseas pig farming information:  Supporting the immune system of piglets

Pig Journal 2016, 4: 56-58 (初出:Asian Pork Magazine, Jan/Feb 2016

文責(前川勝文)(著:Fellipe Freitas BarbosaInge Heinzl

http://www.animalmedia.co.jp/magazine/pigjournal/201604.php 雑誌





Supporting the immune system of piglets


Asian Pork Magazine 2016, Jan/Feb: 24-27

Fellipe Freitas Barbosa, et al.

{Piglets with insufficient immunity cannot cope well with stressful situations as they are more prone to pathogen infection, most likely causing diarrhoea. It is not only that cost and mortality increase when piglets get sick, but also and perhaps most importantly, their full performance potential for growth cannot be achieved. FELLIPE FREITAS BARBOSA and INGE HEINZL report that strengthening the immune system by supplying natural egg immunoglobulins is a feasible alternative in swine production.}

The immune system is extremely organised and consists of different cells acting according to specific functions. Some cells of the immune system have to 'identify' that there's a foreign substance in the organism and show it to the rest of the complex system; some others are tasked to receive or send commands of attack; and finally there are those made to kill and/or neutralise the 'enemy' or the toxins produced by the enemy. As part of this defensive force, there is a group of proteins extremely efficient and considered as the most powerful line of defense against pathogens. Their role is to identify and neutralise foreign substances in the animals' body, such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These proteins called immunoglobulinrs are natural globular proteins produced by animals as part of their own immune system. Facing an 'invasion' the body produces immunoglobulins against specific pathogens, to disable these potential harmful substances. The dominant class of immunoglobulins circulating in the blood of mammalians is lgG's. The functional equivalent immunoglobulins to lgG in birds are immunoglobulins of the lgY class, which constitute the majority of the circulating immunoglobulins. lgY is selectively transferred from the serum into the developing egg to passively protect the chick embryo from harmful substances or pathogens, similar to the transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies to mammalian foetuses. Although functionally equivalent, lgG and lgY are markedly different in structural and physiochemical propertieswhich might explain the variability, comparing their effectiveness against different antigens.



Efficacy of hyperimmunized hen egg yolks in the control of diarrhea in newly weaned piglets


Food and Agricultural Immunology Volume 26, 2015; (5): 622-634

Daniele Pozzebon da Rosa, et al.: Department of Animal Production, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil



The effect of a hyperimmunized (GLOBIGEN®) hen egg yolk–based product was evaluated for the control of diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4 and F18 in newly weaned piglets. The negative control (NC) animals were not challenged and received 40 ppm of colistin as a growth promoter, 2300 ppm of zinc, and 150 ppm copper. The other three treatments were all challenged with ETEC F4 and F18: 0.2% GLOBIGEN®, 4% dry porcine plasma (DPP), and a positive control (PC). Animals on GLOBIGEN® does not differ from NC (p > 0.05) in weight gain. They also had better feed efficiency than DPP (p < 0.05). Animals in GLOBIGEN® did not present diarrhea as was seen in DPP and PC. GLOBIGEN® also showed reduced F4 and F18 (p < 0.05) excretion compared to PC. The results of this study suggest that GLOBIGEN® acts efficiently in diarrhea control, being a viable alternative to the use of antibiotics in newly weaned piglets.



Immuno-intervention with immunoglobulin Y in alimentary tract infections as an alternative or adjunct to antimicrobials or vaccines


Austin Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2014, 1(3); 1-3

Shofiqur Rahman, et al.


It was only within the past quarter-century that interest surged over immunoglobulin Y (IgY) as an anti-infective clinical material unlike the more well-known mammalian immunoglobulin G (IgG) which has long been the workhorse of passive immunotherapy. IgY is the major immunoglobulin class of birds, amphibians, and reptiles, and possibly shares a common ancestor with mammalian IgE with which it has striking structural similarities. Among IgYs from the avian species, chicken IgY has historically been the most frequently described and studied. By immunizing poultry hens with any viral or bacterial antigen of interest, IgYs are generated in the systemic circulation and accumulate by default in the egg yolk from where they are collected and purified.



豚流行性下痢症(Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea: PED)ウイルスに対するニワトリ卵黄免疫グロブリン(Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY)を用いた経口受動免疫の応用: IgYは強い抗原結合力でIgG4分の1量で有効性を示す()

Application of oral passive immunization with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) virus:  IgY has a strong antigen-binding force and is effective at a quarter amount of IgG.

PIG JOURNAL 2014, 17(10): 60-65


http://www.animalmedia.co.jp/magazine/pigjournal/201410.php 雑誌

豚流行性下痢症(Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea: PED)ウイルスは、コロナウイルス科のコロナウイルス属に分類されているが、酷似している豚伝染性胃腸炎(Transmissible Gastroenteritis of Swine: TGE)ウイルスの抗原性に交差反応は観察されない。本病は、TGEウイルスと同様ですべての日齢のプタに感染し、発病率と致死率は哺乳豚で高く、齢とともに低下する。国内における初発例は、1980年前半にTGE様の感染性下痢症が多発し、1983年に発症豚からコロナウイルス様粒子が検出された。1993年以降から全国各地で大規模な発生が繰り返され哺乳豚を中心とした甚大な被害が報告された。この間に、農研機構·動物衛生研究所(旧家畜衛生試験場)九州支場研究室において本病の診断方法が検討され、ベロ細胞でのPEDウイルスの増殖がトリプシンに依存し、細胞の空胞形成とシンシチュームの形成を特徴とするCPE数を測定することにより本ウイルスの定量が可能となった。さらに、トリプシン非依存性ウイルス株が樹立され、中和試験による抗体価の測定も可能となった。これらの技術が確立したことから、本病に対する弱毒生ワクチンが開発され、乳汁免疫によるワクチンが市販されるに至った。その7年後、201310月の沖縄県での初発例から20146月までの被害状況の報告によると、38道県766農場で約98万頭が発症し、そのうち約28万頭が死亡している。「ピッグジャーナル20145月号」に掲載されたPEDに遭遇された養豚関係者の座談会記事を拝見したところ、今回の発生は前回と全く異なり、ウイルスの病原性が強く伝播速度も速くて、防疫の方向性を把握できないほど危機的な状況に置かれていたと考えられる。次のパンデミックを想定した免疫学的アプローチとして、PEDウイルス惑染に対する抗原結合力に優れたニワトリ卵黄免疫グロブリン(Immunoglobulin Yolk: ]gY)を利用した経口受動免疫の応用について考えてみたい。



クリプトスポリジウムP23糖タンパク抗原に対する機能性リベチン(Immunoglobulin YolkIgY)を用いた経口受動免疫の野外応用 ()

Field application of oral passive immunization with functional livetin (Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY) against Cryptosporidium P23 glycoprotein antigen.

臨床獣医2014,32(8): 41-45


リベチンとは、卵黄タンパク質に約30%含まれる水溶性タンパク質のことであり、α-β-およびγ-リベチンの3種類に区分され、各々の存在比は2:3:5である。α-リベチンは親トリの血清のアルプミン、β-リベチンは血清α2-グルコプロテイン、y-リベチンは血清yグロブリンで、卵黄内への輸送椴能によって卵黄に移行した物質である。γ-リベチンは卵黄中に含まれる7SタイプのIgGであり、機能性リベチン(immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY)と呼ばれる。この鳥類の生物学的な仕組みを利用すると、トリに感作する抗原の種碩を変えるたけで特異性の異なる色々なlgYか生産できる。筆者らは、これまでに子牛の消化・吸収機能に障害を及ぼして生桁性を阻害する腸管毒素原性大腸菌K99、サルモネラ菌(Salmonella typhimuriumおよびS.Dublin) 、ロタウイルス(G6型およびG10型)ならびにコロナウイルスに対するlgYを開発してきた。本稿では、クリプトスポリジウム(Cryptosporidium parvum)に対するlgYについて紹介する。



母豚の腸内細菌叢安定で哺乳子豚の下痢を軽減:特異的卵黄リベチンの活用 ()

Stable intestinal flora of sows reduces diarrhea in suckling piglets.  Utilization of specific egg yolk livetin.

養豚界2012, (3): 60-63





The origin of IgG-containing cells in the bursa of Fabricius


Cell Tissue Res, Springer, 25 April 2012; DOI 10.1007/s00441-012-1407-7

Shigeo Ekino, et al.: Department of Histology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University


The bursa of Fabricius of the chicken is known as a primary lymphoid organ for B-cell development. Morphologically, the origin of IgG-containing cells in the bursa has not been clear until now, because abundant maternal IgG (MIgG) is transported to the chick embryo and distributed to the bursal tissue around hatching. Thus, it has been difficult to find out whether these cells themselves biosynthesize IgG or if they acquire MIgG via attachment to their surface. Our present study employing in situ hybridization clarified that IgG-containing cells in the medulla of bursal follicles did not biosynthesize IgG. To study the role of MIgG in the development of those IgG-containing cells, MIgG-free chicks were established from surgically bursectomized hen (SBx-hen). We found that, on the one hand, deprivation of MIgG from chicks completely inhibited the development of IgG-containing cells in the medulla after hatching. On the other hand, administration of MIgG to MIgG-free chicks recovered the emergence of those cells. In addition, we observed that those cells did not bear a B-cell marker and possessed dendrites with aggregated IgG. These results demonstrate that IgG-containing cells in the medulla are reticular cells that capture aggregated MIgG. Moreover, we show that the isolation of the bursa from environmental stimuli by bursal duct ligation (BDL) suppressed the development of IgG-containing cells after hatching. Thus, it is implied that environmental stimulations play a key role in MIgG aggregations and dendritic distributions of aggregated MIgG in the medulla after hatching.



機能性リベチン(Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY)を用いた経口受動免疫の野外応用 ()

Field application of oral passive immunity with functional livetin (Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY).

臨床獣医2011, 29(8): 45-50


卵黄リベチン(Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY) の作成は烏類に備わっている「卵黄内への輸送機能」の生物学的な仕組みを利用する。これは烏類に感作する抗原の種類を変えるだけで.特異性の異なる色々な卵黄リベチンが生産できる。リベチンとは.卵黄タンパク質に約30%含まれる水溶l生タンパク質のことであり、α-β-およびγ-リベチンの3種類が区分されている。各々の存在比は235であることが報告されている。α-リベチンは親鳥の血清のアルプミンで、β-リベチンは血清α2-グルコプロテインであり、y-リベチンは血清y-グロブリンが「卵黄内への輸送機能」によって卵黄に移行した物質であることが証明されている。著者らは,烏類に自然に備わっている血清y-グロプリンの卵黄内移行のメカニズムを利用して、子牛の消化・吸収機能に障害を及ぼして、生産性を阻害する腸管毒索原性大腸菌K99(以下、ETEC K99)、サルモネラ菌(S.TyphimuriumおよびS. Dublin)、ロタウイルス(G6型およびG10型)、コロナウイルスならびにクリプトスポリジウム(Cryptosporidium parvum)原虫に対する卵黄リベチンを開発してきた。これらの機能性リベチンを含有する鶏卵粉末を「混合飼料」として実用化している。鶉卵生産システムを活用することによって、感作抗原ごとに高い活性を有するリベチンを製造している。給与する子牛の発育ステージに合わせて、各種の卵黄リベチンをプレンドして最終製品を製造している。ここでは,ETEC K99およびロタウイルスに対するIgYの攻撃試験成績ならびに野外応用試験成績を紹介する。



卵黄γ-リベチン(Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY)の腸管毒素原生大腸菌K99抗原およびウシコロナウイルス抗原に対する抗原結合力と経口受動免疫効果との関連 ()

Relationship between antigen binding and oral passive immunization of egg yolk γ-livetin (Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY) to enterotoxigenic E.coli K99 antigen and bovine coronavirus antigen.

臨床獣医2011, 29(7): 46-50


https://jglobal.jst.go.jp/detail?JGLOBAL_ID=201102205651059004 雑誌文献

卵黄γ-リベチン(Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY)の作製は鳥類に備わっている「卵黄内への輸送機構」の生物学的な仕組みを利用する。これはニワトリに感作する抗原の種類を変えるだけで,特異性の異なる様々な卵黄γ-リベチンが生産できる。リベチンとは,卵黄タンパク質に約30%含まれる水溶性タンパク質のことで,α-, β-およびγ-リベチンの3種類に分類される。各々の存在比は235であることが報告されている。また,α-リベチンは親鳥の血清アルブミン,β-リベチンは血清α2-グルコプロテイン,およびγ-リベチンは血清γ-グロブリン(IgY)と同一であることが免疫学的に証明されている。筆者らは,この「血清γ-グロブリンの卵黄内への輸送機構」を利用して,子牛の消化・吸収に障害を与えることにより増体重および飼料要求率に悪影響を及ぼす腸管毒素原性大腸菌,サルモネラ菌(S.TyphimuriumおよびS.Dublin),ロタウイルス(G6およびG10型),ウシコロナウイルスならびにクリプトスポリジウム原虫に対する卵黄γ-リベチンを開発してきた。これらの機能性リベチンを含有する鶏卵を粉末化したものを「混合飼料」として実用化している。鶏卵生産システムを活用することで,病原体ごとに高い活性の卵黄γ-リベチンを含有する鶏卵粉末が安定して製造ができている。給与する子牛の日齢や用途に合わせて,各種の鶏卵粉末をブレンドして最終製品(混合飼料)を提供している。子牛における下痢症は,上記の病原体感染による発症が6070 であり,重症化により死廃率, 損耗率へと影響する。この機能性リベチンを含有する鶏卵粉末を代用乳への添加,ペースト形態として給与することで,健康な子牛の育成に役立てることができる。ここでは,Immunoglobulin Yolk (IgY)の性状,作用メカニズム,子牛消化管での安定性,IgYIgGの抗原結合力の比較およびIgYを経口受動免疫に応用する利点などについて紹介をしたい。



海外で実施した機能性リベチン(Immunoglobulin YolkIgY)を含有する鶏卵粉末の野外評価試験 ()

A field evaluation test of chicken egg powder containing functional livetin (Immunoglobulin Yolk: IgY) conducted overseas.

PIG JOURNAL 2011, 14(2): 1-6


http://www.animalmedia.co.jp/magazine/pigjournal/201102.php 雑誌

卵黄γ-リベチンの作製はトリに備わっている「卵黄内への輸送機構」の仕組みを利用する。トリに免疫する接種抗原の種類を変えるだけで、異なる様々なγリベチンが開発できる。リベチンとは、卵黄タンパク質に約30%含まれる卵黄水溶性タンパク質のことであり、α-β-およびγ-リベチンの3種類に分類される。それぞれの存在比は、2:3:5であると報告されている。また、α-リベチンは親鶏の血消アルプミン、β-リベチンは血消α2-グロコプリティンおよび、γ-リベチンは血消γ-グロプリン(lgY)と同一であることが免疫学的に証明されている。筆者らは、この「卵黄内への輸送機構」の仕組みを利用して、プタの消化・吸収に障害を与えることにより増体量ならびに飼料要求率が低下する、腸管毒素原性大腸菌(K88K99および987P)、浮腫病に関与する大腸歯(Fl8線毛抗原、0-139および0-141)、サルモネラ菌(Salmonella Typhimurium)、クロストリジウム・パーフリンゲンス(毒素も含む)、ロタウイルス、TGEウイルスおよびPEDウイルスなどに対する卵黄γ-リベチンを開発してきた。これらの機能性リベチンを含有する鶏卵を粉末化したものを混合飼料として実用化している。鶏卵生産システムを活用することで、病原体ごとに高い活性を有する機能性リベチンを含有する鶏卵粉末について安定して製造でき、現在、10数種類のラインナップをもつ。給与する豚の日齢や、用途に合わせて、各種類の鶏卵粉末をプレンドして最終製品(滉合飼料)を提供している。ここでは、生産性阻害のメカニズム、卵黄γ-リベチンの作用メカニズム、腸管内での安定性および、海外で実施した機能性リベチンを含有する鶏卵粉末の野外評価試験の結果について紹介したい。



Utilising egg antibodies to help piglets achieve their full potential


International Pig Topics 2010, 25(1), 7-11

Inge Heinzl


The importance of health status and how it affects successful pig production is well established and widely accepted as one of the most critical factors. To this end, it is important to emphasise that piglets with insufficient immunity cannot cope well under disease stress as they are more prone to pathogen infection, most likely causing diarrhea. It is not only that cost and mortality rate increase when pigs get sick, but also and perhaps most importantly, the full performance potential for growth cannot be achieved. To this effect, strengthening the immune system of newborn piglets with egg antibodies could just be that silver bullet.



Egg powder gives calves


FEED MIX 2009, 17(6), 24-25

Inge Heinzl

During the first weeks after birth, calves are often infected with pathogens that diarrhoea and may lead to death. If the calf overcomes the disease, resulting weakness reduces growth on the long-term. Antibodies from hen eggs could help to strengthen the immune system and increase the resistance to such diseases.



Effect of egg yolk antibody on experimental Cryptosporidium parvum infection in scid mice


Vaccine 2004, 23 : 232-235

Chizu Kobayashi, et al.


In this study the effect of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against Cryptosporidium parvum infection was examined. IgY sample was prepared from eggs of chickens immunized with C.parvum oocyst antigens. In vitro, antibody-treated sporozoites showed reduced binding to Caco-2 cells and lost vitality. These phenomena were not observed with a control IgY sample prepared from eggs of non-immunized chickens. Scid mice orally administered with the antibody demonstrated partial reduction in oocyst shedding after challenge with 103 oocysts. IgY, however, could not eliminate the infection after 17 days of continuous treatment. The potentials of using specific IgY for treatment and prevention of cryptosporidiosis were discussed.



Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins as oral prophylactics against bovine rotavirus and coronavirus infections


Current Topics in Virology Volum 4, 2004: 39-49

Masahiko Kuroki


Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (Yig) specific for bovine rotavirus (BRV) serotypes (G6, [P1]), (G10, [P11]) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) were prepared with egg yolks derived from hens immunized with each viral antigen. Anti-BRV Yig preparations were investigated in suckling mice model, in experimental neonatal calves challenge tests, and in a field condition with an epidemic outbreak of BRV. These results showed significant efficacies of anti-BRV Yig preparations (P<0.01). Anti-BCV Yig preparations were compared with anti-BCV cow colostrums antibody powder. It took about four times more colostral antibody than chicken egg yolk antibody to prevent mortality in neonatal calves (P<0.01). The data of these tests showed that oral administration of Yig had significant efficacies against BRV and BCV infections. These results raise the possibility of wide application of specific Yig against gastro-enteropathogenic diseases caused by other pathogens in animals and human.




Symbiosis rather than antibiotics (functional feed)

家畜診療2004, 51(2): 69-77Journal of veterinary clinic


抗生物質の進歩は1929年のペニシリンの発見に始まり,人類を苦しめてきた多くの感染症の治療に力を発揮した。しかしその影の部分として,メチシリン耐性プドウ球菌(MRSA)やバンコマイシン耐性腸球菌 (VRE) などの薬剤耐性菌の問題を生じ,抗生物質療法の限界を示す深刻な問題を抱えるに至った。21世紀は予防獣医学の比重が増し,防御システムの見直しが課題となる。生体防御システムとしての免疫と腸内細菌叢(floraまたはbiota)の意義を捉えたものがプロバイオティクスであり,また発展した飼料が機能性飼料である。




Bovine rotavirus infection egg yolk antibody "ABgen BRV"

臨床獣医2002, 20(9): 42-43


口タウイルス感染による下痢発症防御は,多種の動物にとって重要な課題である。A群牛ロタウイルス(BRV)は新生子牛下痢症の重要な病原ウイルスで、日本および諸外国では血清型G6およびG10が主に流行している。BRVの増殖部拉は小腸であり,その腸管内での能動免疫誘導には,経口弱毒生ワクチンが有効と言われている。しかし,新生子牛においては初乳中に含有されているBRV中和抗休によりBRV生ワクチンは不活化されやすい問題がある。一方, 妊娠牛にBRV抗原を接種して得られた免疫初乳を子牛に連続投与する方法も試みられているが,初乳中の中和抗体価は分娩後数日以内に急激に低下してしまうので,免疫動物としては実用上問題がある。そこで,採卵鶏の血清抗体が卵黄に効率よく長期間移行することに注目し,免疫動物を産卵鶏に選定した。そして受動免疫効果および臨床試験での効果を検討し, 医薬品の製造承認を得た。この卵黄抗体の獣医学領域への応用は, 新素材の利用範囲の拡大としてきわめて意義深いと考えられる。



Oral passive immunization using chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins against bovine rotavirus and coronavirus infection


Recent Research Development in Virology 1999, 1: 95-106

Masahiko Kuroi

Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (ylg) specific for bovine rotavirus (BRV) serotypes G6, G10 and bovine coronavirus (BCV) were prepared with egg yolks derived from hens immunized with these viral antigens. Anti-BRV ylg preparations purified with ammonium sulfate were examined in homotypic and heterotypic protection in suckling mouse model. The anti-BRV and anti-BCV ylg preparations purified with enteric coating polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate) for mass production were examined in calf trials including experimental challenge tests for BRV and BCV and field trial in BRV-positive farm. The data of these tests showed that oral ylg administration had significant efficacies against BRV and BCV infections. These results raise the possibility of wide application of specific ylg against enteropathogenic diseases caused by other pathogens in animals and humans.



免疫製剤を用いた子牛下痢症予防および治療効果 ()

Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of calf diarrhea using immune products.

臨床獣医1999, 17(13): 32-37

阿部省吾ら:NOSAI山形 家畜診療研修所

子牛下痢症は,肥育牛の疾患の中でも経済的損失も大きく,特に細菌感染による下痢は,原因菌の抗生物質に対する耐性化も治療上大きな問題となり, 母牛の乾乳期間中の乳腺疾患や, 分娩後の状態によっては初乳中の移行抗体が影響することも知られていて, 早急な対応が望まれている。これら下痢症の予防に重要とされている初乳は,母牛からの移行抗体であるIgG85%以上含む免疫グロブリンや,各種栄養物質を豊富に含んでいる。特に,初乳中IgGの主たる成分であるIgG1は,等電点が酸性領域にあるため, 胃を容易に通過し,腸管から吸収される。しかしながら,哺乳により吸収される免疫グロプリンは,子牛腸管では移行抗体を吸収できる時間が短いため生後早期に十分な量を給与することが望まれている。一方,初乳哺飲後の子牛血中に移行するlgG量にはばらつきがあり, また,母牛の罹患歴によっては初乳中の各種病原体に対する特異抗体含有量に差の出てくることも考えられる。そのため,子牛血中のlgG量が十分でも, 感染症による下痢の発生が臨床現場ではしばしばみられる。そこで,生後間もない子牛の移行抗体ならびに特異抗体を調査し,検討を行ったところ,良好な成績を得たのでその概要を報告する。



グロブリン含有混合飼料による子ウシ下痢症の予防および治療効果 ()

The Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Administration of the Mixture Feedstuff Including Immunoglobulin Against the Calf Diarrhea

家畜診療 1998, 45(9): 617-623Journal of veterinary clinic, 423, 617-6231998

阿部省吾ら:NOSAI山形 家畜診療研修所

免疫グロプリンと各種ピタミンを含む市販の混合飼料(A剤)を用いて, 子ウシの下痢症に対する予防および治療効果を検討した。下痢多発農家における予防効果試験では,投与群の下痢発生率(47%)は無投与群(73%)に比べて有意に低ドした(p<0.01)。投与群のうちで下痢を発症した子ウシの治療回数(2.6)は,無投与の下痢発症子ウシ(4.8)と比べて有意に少なかった(p<0.01)。さらに,下痢発症子牛に抗生剤や補液を投与した通常治療群と, それにA剤を投与した併用治燎群について比較検討した。その粘果, A剤を投与した併用治叛群の治療回数は通常治税群に比べて.軽症および重症ともに有意に減少した(P<0.01)。これらのことから, 免疫グロプリンを含むA剤は, 子ウシ下痢症の予防ならびに治板に有効であることが示唆された。

The preventive and therapeutic effects of the mixture feedstuff including immunoglobulin and vitamins ("A" preparation) against the calf diarrhea were carried out. As a resultthe incidence of diarrhea reduced significantly in the administrative group in comparison with the non-administrative group (47%, 73%, P<0.01). The treatment frequencies was significantly lower in the calves that developed diarrhea in spite of adding "A" preparation than in the non-administrative calves with diarrhea (2.6, 4.8 times, p<0.01). Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of "A" preparation adding to the usual treatments using antibiotics and/or infusions were carried out on the calves with diarrhea. The number of treatments was significantly lower in the administrative group than in the non-administrative group both of severe (5.5, 10.3 times, P<0.01) and slight cases (3.5, 4.2 times, P<0.01) of diarrhea. It was concluded that the using of "A" preparation was useful for the prevention and treatment of diarrhea in the calves.



Prevention of fatal salmonellosis in neonatal calves, using orally administered chicken egg yolk Salmonella-specific antibodies


American Journal of Veterinary Research 1998, 59(4): 416-420

Hideaki Yokoyama, et al.


To protect neonatal calves against fatal salmonellosis within the first 2 weeks after birth, using chicken egg yolk antibodies specific against Salmonella Typhimurium or S.Dublin. 38 neonatal Holstein calves from Salmonella-free farms. After removal of the lipid components with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, egg yolk antibodies were spray dried. At 4 days of age, calves were challenge exposed by oral inoculation with 10 virulent S.Typhimurium (experiment 1) or S.Dublin (experiment 2). Starting from the challenge-exposure day, egg yolk antibody preparations were administered orally 3 times a day for 7 to 10 days. In passive immunization trials, the orally administered antibodies conferred dose-dependent protection against infection with each of the homologous strains of Salmonella. Within 7 to 10 days after challenge exposure, all control calves died, whereas low-titer antibody-treated calves had 60 to 100% mortality. Only fever and diarrhea, but no deaths (P < 0.01), were observed in calves given the highest titer of antibody. Compared with that in control calves, survival was significantly higher among calves given antibodies with titers of 500 (P < 0.05) and 1,000 (P < 0.01) homotypic for S.Typhimurium and with titer of 5,000 (P < 0.01) for S.Dublin. Egg yolk antibodies specific for whole cell S.Typhimurium or S.Dublin are protective against fatal salmonellosis when given in sufficiently high concentration, and may be clinically useful during a salmonellosis outbreak.



Oral passive immunization against experimental salmonellosis in mice using chicken egg yolk antibodies specific for Salmonella enteritidis and S.typhimurium


Vaccine 1998, 16(4): 388-393

Hideaki Yokoyama, et al.


The efficacy of chicken egg yolk homotypic antibodies specific for outer membrane proteins (OMP), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagella (Fla) in controlling experimental salmonellosis in mice was investigated. Mice challenged orally with 2 × 109 c.f.u. of Salmonella enteritidis or 2 × 107 c.f.u. of S.typhimurium were orally treated with 0.2 ml anti-OMP, -LPS or -Fla yolk antibody three times a day for three consecutive days. In mice challenged with S.enteritidis, antibody treatment resulted in a survival rate of 80%, 47% and 60% using OMP, LPS or Fla specific antibodies respectively, in contrast to only 20% in control mice. In the S.typhimurium trial, survival rate was 40%, 30% and 20% using OMP, LPS or Fla specific antibodies respectively in contrast to 0% in control mice. In vitro adhesion of S.enteritidis and S.typhimurium to HeLa cells was significantly reduced by anti-OMP, -LPS, and -Fla homotypic antibodies. Results suggest that egg yolk antibodies specific for Salmonella OMP, LPS, and Fla may protect mice from experimental salmonellosis when passively administered orally. Of these antibodies, anti-OMP exhibited the highest level of protection in vivo and in vitro.



Passive protection of neonatal calves against bovine coronavirus-induced diarrhea by administration of egg yolk or colostrum antibody powder


Veterinary Microbiology 1997, 58: 105-111

Yutaka Ikemori, et al.


The protective effect of egg yolk and colostrum powders prepared from hens and cows vaccinated with inactivated bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was evaluated in a challenge model with a virulent BCV strain. Twenty-three calves from BCV-free herds were randomly divided into control and several treatment groups. All calves were orally challenged with 1 × 109 TCID50 of the virulent Kakegawa strain of BCV at 24 to 36 h after birth. Calves in treatment groups received either egg yolk powder or cow colostrum containing BCV specific antibodies. Daily treatment with these antibody preparations started 6 h until 7 days post-challenge. Control calves which received no antibody had severe diarrhea and all died within 6 days after infection. In contrast, calves fed milk containing egg yolk or colostrum with neutralization titers of 1:2560 or 1:10 240 respectively all survived and had positive weight gain unlike the other treatment groups. These results indicate that the orally administered egg yolk and colostrum powders protected against BCV-induced diarrhea in neonatal calves and that the egg yolk used provided a higher degree of protection compared to colostrum powder on a titer basis. Treatment with whole egg yolk from immunized hens therefore provides a more efficacious alternative to the existing methods of specific passive protection against BCV.



Field evaluation of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins specific for bovine rotavirus in neonatal calves


Archives of Virology 1997, 142: 843-851

M. Kuroki, et al.


The oral efficacy of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (yIg) specific for bovine rotavirus (BRV) serotypes G6 and G10 in protecting neonatal calves was examined in a herd of cattle under field conditions. In one of the three trials, yIg-treated calves tested under high relative humidity (RH) showed a significantly increased mean body weight (P<0.05) and a decrease in number of calves shedding high titer of BRV (G6) in stool compared to control calves (P<0.01), suggesting that our yIg product was effective in a field condition with an epidemic outbreak of BRV diarrhea.



Effect of Oral Egg Antibody in Experimental F18+ Escherichia coli Infection in Weaned Pigs


The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 1997, 59(10): 917-921

Hideaki YOKOYAMA, et al.



The protection conferred by egg antibody specific for F18-fimbriae against infection with F18+ Escherichia coli was studied in controlled passive immunization trials involving weaned pigs. Parameters of protection consisted of body weight gain, frequency and severity of diarrhea and recovery of the challenge strain of F18+ E. coli. Weaned pigs at four weeks of age were challenge exposed once daily for three days by oral inoculation with 1011 cfu of virulent F18+ E. coli followed by daily administration of antibody supplemented feed for 9 days starting from the first challenge day 0. Results showed a dose-dependent response to antibody treatment. The group of pigs given 1:50 titer of antibody in feed had less frequency of diarrhea (P<0.01-0.05), higher rate of gain (P<0.01) and lower isolation rate of challenge strain in rectal and intestinal swabs (P<0.01) compared to non-treated control. In the same manner, the anti-F18 antibody significantly reduced adherence of F18+ E. coli to pig intestinal epithelial cells in vitro (P<0.01). Results suggest that egg antibodies specific for the F18 fimbriae is a suitable immunotherapeutic agent for pigs infected with F18+ E. coli and that pigs can be protected from overt clinical disease and the subsequent reduced performance arising from infection with this pathogen.



Reduced intestinal colonization with F18-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in weaned pigs fed chicken egg antibody against the fimbriae


FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 1997, 18: 153-161

Armand Zuniga, et al.: Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Zurich



Newly weaned pigs were fed a basal diet containing either egg antibody against fimbriae F18 at a high or low level, control egg powder or no egg, and challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with fimbriae F18. The challenge was repeated after termination of the antibody treatment. Antibody-containing egg powder was produced by vaccination of hens with semi-purified fimbriae of the two variants F18ab and F18ac. Pigs eating egg powder with antibody against the same fimbrial variant were fully protected, even if the vaccine for the hens was produced with a different serotype devoid of enterotoxins. The effect was dose-dependent. The high dose of antibody against the heterologous variant of fimbriae F18 reduced colonisation at a level which was not significant. Ingestion of egg antibody partially suppressed the build-up of anti-colonisation immunity. Oral application of egg antibodies offers a promising approach for the prevention of infectious diseases of the digestive tract.



Passage of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibody Treated with Hydroxypropyl Methylcelulose Phthalate in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Calves


Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 1996, 58(4): 365-367

Yutaka IKEMORI, et al.



Two types of chicken egg yolk antibody samples for oral passage trials in calves were prepared; (1) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) antibody powder (HAP) - a powder produced by spray-drying a supernatant obtained after precipitation of lipids from egg yolk with HPMCP and (2) control antibody powder (CAP) - a powder produced from an antibody solution without HPMCP. Antibody activity and pattern of distribution of both antibody preparations in the gastrointestinal tract of calves were compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 2 hr post administration, anti-K99 fimbrial antibodies from both the CAP and the HAP were detected in the abomasum of calves with titers of 1:128 and 1:256, respectively. However, at 4 hr, anti-K99 fimbrial titers of the CAP and the HAP were reduced to 1:2 and 1:64, respectively, due to digestion in the abomasum. These results indicated that the egg yolk antibody powder with HPMCP was more resistant against gastric juice in the stomach, thereby, ensuring a transfer of functional antibodies to the small intestine of calves after oral administration.



Dose-dependent effects of specific egg-yolk antibodies on diarrhea of newborn calves


Preventive Veterinary Mwdicine 1996, 27: 67-73

H Ozpinar, et al.: Institute for Physiology, Physiologic Chemistry and Animal Nutrition, University Munich


In a field trial on a farm in Turkey, we tested whether specific egg-yolk antibodies had a prophylactic effect on neonatal diarrhea. Owing to its antibody spectrum, this egg powder was very suitable for this farm since mainly rotavirus was identified. Regardless of the dosage (2 g, 4 g, or 8 g egg powder), the calves (n = 164) which received specific egg-yolk antibodies via the whole egg during the first 14 days of life showed significant improvements in risk and duration of diarrhea and in body weight gain compared with calves of the control group (n = 80) which had not received any egg powder. These significant differences in body weight still persisted after 3 months of life. The mortality risk in the control group amounted to 8.8%, while in all egg powder groups (n = 164) only one calf died as a result of diarrhea. Breed-dependent differences in the parameters were not observed.



Passive immunization against experimental salmonellosis in mice by orally administered hen egg-yolk antibodies specific for 14-kDa fimbriae of Salmonella Enteritidis


Journal of Medical Microbiology 1994, 41 : 29-35

R. C. Peralta, et al.


Chickens were immunised with a preparation of purified 14-kDa fimbriae of  serotype Enteritidis (SEF 14) to raise egg-yolk antibodies for protection trials in mice against subsequent challenge-exposure with the homologous strain of Enteritidis. A pronounced specificity of egg-yolk antibodies against the 14-kDa fimbrial antigen was demonstrated by Western blotting analysis. Passive antibody protection was evaluated in a mouse model of experimental salmonellosis: 79 mice (CD 1 strain) were challenged orally with 2 × 10 cfu of Enteritidis. Test mice treated with SEF-14 antibodies (titre = 128) had a survival rate of 77.8% compared to 32% survival in control mice fed normal egg-yolk antibodies (titre < 10) (p < 0.01). In-vitro adhesion of Enteritidis to mouse intestinal epithelial cells was reduced by anti-fimbrial antibodies. An indirect immunofluorescence method demonstrated the localisation of Enteritidis along the villous margins of the small intestine of control mice, whereas in test mice adherent bacteria were not detected. Results suggest that 14-kDa fimbriae may influence, enhance or contribute to the overall adhesive properties of Enteritidis and that egg-yolk antibodies directed against these fimbriae may have played a substantial role in protection, possibly by minimising bacterial colonisation and invasion during the early stages of infection.



Passive protection against bovine rotavirus in calves by specific immunoglobulins from chicken egg yolk


Archives of Virology 1994, 138: 143-148

M. Kuroki, et al.


The efficacy of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (yIg) from hens immunized with bovine rotavirus (BRV) serotype G6 (strain Shimane) or serotype G10 (strain KK-3) for protection against homologous BRV in calves was investigated. A significant protection by anti-BRV yIg having 6400 neutralizing antibody titer per dose could be achieved in calves (P<0.01).


Passive protection against bovine rotavirus-induced diarrhea in murine model by specific immunoglobulins from chicken egg yolk


Veterinary Microbiology 1993, 37: 135-146

M. Kuroki, et al.


Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (yIg) specific against bovine rotavirus (BRV) serotypes 6 (strain Shimane) and 10 (strain KK-3) were used for oral passive immunization of suckling mice against experimental BRV challenge. The protective capacity of the antibody preparation was tested using different concentrations of yIg against a challenge dose of 107.5 TCID50 for Shimane and 107.0 TCID50 for KK-3 strain. There was a significant homotypic (P < 0.05) and heterotypic (P < 0.01) protection using 160 anti-Shimane or 160 anti-KK-3 neutralizing antibody titer (NAT) compared to control mice given yIg derived from eggs of mock-immunized (control) hens. The titer of infectious BRV recovered from intestinal tissue or luminal chyme decreased with increasing homotypic yIg NAT. A decrease in degree and duration of BRV antigen localization in the villus epithelial lining was observed in mice treated with homotypic yIg at optimum dose for prevention of diarrhea. The NAT in sera of challenged mice increased with decreasing NAT in the yIg given before challenge suggesting that protection was dose-dependent. The present findings indicate that a passive protection could be achieved by the use of yIg against BRV-induced diarrhea in this murine model.



Detection of passage and absorption of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs by use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent antibody testing


American Journal of Veterinary Research 1993, 54(6): 867-872

Hideaki Yokoyama, et al.


Chicken egg yolk IgG can be absorbed and transferred as efficiently as colostral antibodies in the blood of neonatal pigs. Egg yolk IgG has a half-life of 1.85 days in newborn pig serum. This is shorter than the reported half-life (12 to 14 days) of homologous IgG in serum of pigs. Similar to colostral antibodies, egg yolk IgG absorption from intestine ceased at about 34 hours of age, after a logarithmic decrease in absorption rate from birth. Egg yolk IgG absorption inhibition time in the gastrointestinal tract took 1.73 hours to decrease by half. Egg yolk IgG was protective against experimentally induced diarrhea in pigs when it was administered at high dose, and multiple dosing was instituted. Adverse effects were not observed when chicken egg yolk IgG was administered orally to pigs.



Research note: Avidity of Chicken Yolk Antibodies to Enterotoxigenis Escherichia coli Fimbriae


Poultry Science 1993, 72 : 2361-2365



The yolk antibodies from chickens and the serum and colostrum antibodies from cows were obtained after immunization of these animals with inactivated bacterin or purified K99 fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The avidity of anti-K99 fimbriae antibodies produced from either chickens or cows was measured by competitive binding assay of ELISA. The yolk antibodies competed strongly with the serum and colostrum antibodies from immunized cows and inhibited 40 to 80% of the binding of these antibodies. Results demonstrate that the avidity of antibodies obtained from immunized chickens compares with that obtained from immunized cows. Thus, the yolk antibody from immunized chickens, aside from its use for prophylaxis against some infectious diseases, may also serve as effective ligand for purification of biologically active substances such as fimbrial antigens by affinity chromatographic procedures.



Protection of neonatal calves against fatal enteric colibacillosis by administration of egg yolk powder from hens immunized with K99-piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli


American Journal of Veterinary Research 1992, 53(11): 2005-2008



The protective effects of egg yolk powder prepared from hens vaccinated with heat-extracted antigens from K99-piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain 431 were evaluated in a colostrum-fed calf model of ETEC-induced diarrhea caused by a heterologous strain (B44). The antibody powder was obtained by spray-drying the water-soluble protein fraction of egg yolks after removing the lipid and fatty components by precipitation with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate. A total of 16 colostrum-fed calves were studied to determine whether the orally administered antibody powder would prevent fatal bovine colibacillosis caused by a virulent ETEC strain. Clinical response of individual calves was monitored and evaluated in the context of these variables: fecal consistency score, intestinal colonization, weight loss, and mortality. Control calves that were treated with vehicle (milk with egg yolk powder from nonimmunized hens) had severe diarrhea and dehydration and died within 72 hours after infection was manifested. In contrast, calves fed milk containing egg yolk powder with anti-pili agglutinin titers of 1:800 and 1:1,600 had transient diarrhea, 100% survival, and good body weight gain during the course of the study. Results indicate that the orally administered egg yolk powder protected against ETEC-induced diarrhea in neonatal calves and that the protective components may have been the antibodies raised by vaccination of chickens against ETEC.



Passive Protective effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins against Experimental Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infection in Neonatal Piglets


Infection and Immunity 1992, 60(3): 998-1007




Passive protection of neonatal piglets against fatal enteric colibacillosis was achieved with powder preparations of specific antibodies against K88, K99, and 987P fimbrial adhesins of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The antibody powders were obtained by spray drying the water-soluble protein fraction of egg yolks from immunized hens after the lipid components were precipitated with an aqueous dispersion of acrylic resins (Eudragit L30D-55; Rohm pharma). The anti-K88, -K99, and -987P antibody preparations reacted specifically against the corresponding fimbrial antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The orally administered antibodies protected in a dose-dependent fashion against infection with each of the three homologous strains of E. coli in passive immunization trials with a colostrum-deprived piglet model of enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea. Scanning electron microscopy revealed adherence of enterotoxigenic E. coli in intestinal epithelial surfaces of control piglets, whereas in treated piglets treated with high-titer antibodies, a resistance to bacterial adhesion was observed. An enzyme immunoassay with avidin-biotin complex demonstrated specific local antibody activity in target areas of the small intestines. In vitro, E. coli K88+, K99+, and 987P+ strains adhered equally to porcine duodenal and ileal epithelial cells but failed to do so in the presence of homologous anti-fimbrial antibodies. Absorption of egg yolk antibodies with fimbrial immunosorbent removed the anti-fimbrial antibody fraction and reduced significantly the protective nature of the antibody preparation in a passive immunization experiment, suggesting that anti-fimbrial antibodies were the active components.



Adaptation of transmissible gastroenteritis virus to growth in non-permissive Vero cells


Archives of virology 1992, 122: 201-206

H. Ishii, et al.


The CPK cells derived from swine kidney were infected with the attenuated TO-163 strain of transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and fused with uninfected Vero cells in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Repeated cocultivation of the fused cells with uninfected Vero cells rendered the virus to grow in Vero cells. The Vero cell-adapted virus acquired the ability to infect and produce cytopathic effects in several other non-permissive cell lines of non-porcine origin. No major differences in viral polypeptides were shown between the Vero cell-adapted TO-163 strain and its parent strain by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to TGE virus.



免疫関連製剤による豚腸管感染症の発症防御(2)3. 異種抗体による哺乳期下痢症の軽減()

Prevention of porcine intestinal infection with immune-related products (2): 3. Reduction of suckling diarrhea with heterologous antibodies.

畜産の研究 1991, 45(5), 49-53


https://agriknowledge.affrc.go.jp/RN/2010430956 雑誌文献

ETECK 88, K 99, 987Pなどの線毛保有株からなる全菌体あるいは線毛からなるコンポーネントワクチンは妊娠豚に接種することによって血中抗体価を上昇させ,血清から初乳に移行した抗体に発症防御効果を期待するものである。しかしながら,初乳中に検出される抗体は抗体のアイソタイプがlgGであるためその値は分娩後急激に低下する。したがって,1週齢以降に発生する下痢症には効果が期待できないためその対応策が迫られている。私共は,異種抗体の有効利用を考え,その基礎的研究を行っている。ここではこれまでに得られた成績の一部を紹介したい。



Purification of K88 and K99 Pili from Porcine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by Affinity Chromatography


Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science (日本獣医学雑誌) 1988, 50(4): 951-953

Mitsutaka KAZUYA, et al.



Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important causative agent of diarrhea in neonatal animals and humans. ETEC induces diarrhea in two steps: first, by colonizing the mucosa! surface of small intestine, and then producing heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxin or both. In recent years, it has been reported that K88, K99, 987P and F41 pili play a significant role in the colonization of porcine ETEC. Various purification methods have been used for isolation of immunologically pure pili from ETEC.  However, these methods are time consuming and require several steps wherein large amount of pili may be lost. The present paper describes the purification of K88 and K99 pili from porcine ETEC by affinity chromatography.

豚毒素原性大腸菌線毛(K88およびK99)の簡便な精製法について検討した。その結果, 両線毛は抗線毛抗体をリガンドとして用いたアフィニティーカラムにより, 従来の方法に比較して効率的に精製された。



免疫関連製剤による哺乳期下痢症の予防 ()

Prevention of suckling diarrhea with immune-related products.

獣医畜産新報 1988, 807: 21-27





豚における腸管感染症の免疫 ()

Immunity to intestinal infections in pigs.

日本獣医学の進展 1985: 228-237


豚コレラや豚丹毒のような全身感染症は優れたワクチンの開発によって減少してきた半面、粘膜表面が感染の標的となるいわゆる局所感染症は内外を問わず増加の一途を辿りその経済的損失は莫大なものとなっている。それにもかかわらず、局所感染症に対する有効な予防法はまだ確立されるに至っていない。その理由は全身感染症と豚伝染性胃腸炎(Transmissible gastroenteritis: TGE)や大腸菌症のような局所感染症とは本質的に異なり、本病に関する因子が複雑であるばかりでなく、局所に防御免疫を誘導しなければならない特殊性があることと、そのために必要な粘膜系の免疫機構が十分に解明されていなかったことによると考えられる。このような観点から、本論文では豚の腸管免疫全般を解説しながら局所感染症に対する予防法についての考えを述べてみたい。





<乳酸菌>Lactic acid bacteria


Symbiosis rather than antibiotics (Functional feed)

家畜診療2004, 51(2): 69-77


抗生物質の進歩は1929年のペニシリンの発見に始まり,人類を苦しめてきた多くの感染症の治療に力を発揮した。しかしその影の部分として,メチシリン耐性プドウ球菌(MRSA)やバンコマイシン耐性腸球菌(VR E ) などの薬剤耐性菌の問題を生じ,抗生物質療法の限界を示す深刻な問題を抱えるに至った。21世紀は予防獣医学の比重が増し,防御システムの見直しが課題となる。生体防御システムとしての免疫と腸内細菌叢(floraまたはbiota)の意義を捉えたものがプロバイオティクスであり,また発展した飼料が機能性飼料である。



Enhancement of chicken resistance against Escherichia coli infection by oral administration of Bifidobacterium thermophilum preparations


Avian Diseases 2002, 46:542-546

Chizu Kobayashi, et al.


Three types of Bifidobacterium thermophilum extract were prepared and fed to 2-wk-old chickens to evaluate their usefulness in enhancing the defense activity of the chickens against pathogenic Escherichia coli. All three preparations resulted in significant reduction (P < 0.05) of E. coli numbers in the lungs of the treated chicken groups compared with the control nontreated group. Besides, improvement in the survival rate was observed in the treated chicken groups, especially the one administered the enzyme-digested B. thermophilum extract sample. Concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes from the latter group demonstrated significantly higher proliferation activity compared with those from the control group. These results suggest that oral administration of B. thermophilum preparations may be used to enhance the resistance of chickens against E. coli infection.



Stress and intestinal flora


Bifidobacteria Microflora 1989, 8(1):23-38

Kunio Suzuki, et al.: Frontier research Program, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN)



The effects of crowding and heat stress on the intestinal flora, body-weight gains, and feed efficiencies of rats and chickens as well as the effects of the administration of probiotics on the animals under stress were introduced. Irrespective of the type of stress and host species, the change of intestinal flora caused by stress showed almost the common tendency: when the animal suffered stress, Staphylococcus, StreptococcusCorynebacterium, and Enterobacteriaceae commonly increased; when the stress was more severe, sometimes Peptococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Clostridium also increased or Lactobacillus reduced. Body-weight gains and feed efficiencies were markedly suppressed under these stress conditions. Administering Lactobacillus to a chicken under heat stress improved its hypoplasia while administration of Bifidobacterium improved the feed efficiency and intestinal flora.





<その他の飼料>Other Feed



Change of the intestinal bacteria by feed change, and reaction on weight.

養鶏の友 20206


2020.6 養鶏の友 飼料の切り替えによる腸内細菌の変動と増体重への影響.pdf へのリンク




Effectiveness of herbal extract feeding in chickens.

養鶏の友 201910


2019.10 養鶏の友 養鶏におけるハーブ抽出物給与の有効性.pdf へのリンク



カビ毒対策資材「マスターソーブ・ゴールド」 ()

Mycotoxin control material "Mastersorb Gold"

養豚界 2016, 6: 29




ボツリヌス毒素に対するカビ毒吸着剤の吸着作用 ()

Adsorption of mycotoxins to botulinum toxin.

臨床獣医 2016, 34(1): 22-26                 

幸田知子ら:阪府立大学大学院生命環境科学研究科 獣医学専攻獣医感染症学教室



細菌毒素を吸着する機能性飼料を利用した生産性の向上 ()

Improvement of productivity by using functional feed that adsorbs bacterial toxins.

養鶏の友 2014, 10: 24-27


http://www.fujisan.co.jp/product/1281682345/b/1141359/ 雑誌

養豚の友  2014, 10:48-51


http://www.fujisan.co.jp/product/1281682346/b/1141361/ 雑誌

養牛の友  2014, 10:58-61


http://www.fujisan.co.jp/product/1281682347/b/1141363/ 雑誌














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